I ran into some snags while trying to use Ubuntu for offline Drupal development and have noted them down for future reference.
After getting LAMP installed, I added "AllowOverride All" to the necessary directories in the Apache config, but Drupal clean URLs wouldn't work. It turns out that, unlike Centos, Ubuntu doesn't enable mod_rewrite on Apache by default. The solution was enterning "sudo a2enmod rewrite".
Another snag was session mysteriously not working, causing problems with logging in (and also updating). The solution for this was to comment out the ini_set session.cookie_domain line near the top of the settings.inc.php file.